Global Business  


Elecdyne is a Japanese SME established in 1990. The company is based in Tokyo, Japan. The company produces a wide range of electronic products including televisions, CD players, DVD players MP3 players, and hi-fi equipment among other similar products. The major activities of the company are within Japan and as such the company only supplies the Japanese market. The company obtains its inputs from local suppliers within Japan. It does not source its inputs from international suppliers. This implies that the ability of the company to compete effectively in the local Japanese market is limited as the industry giants based in this country pose high competition to the company. The company has failed to grow its sales over the past two years owing to the fact that its operations are only limited within the boundaries of Japan. This makes it increasingly difficult for the company to compete effectively. The company cannot hire research graduate to carry out its R&D activities since the graduates prefer working for highly successful and better paying organizations. This limits its ability to make appropriate adjustments on its products in terms of features and other necessary attributes. In order to compete effectively, the company should consider venturing into overseas markets (Renata, 2012, p. 22). For instance, the company can establish its activities and operations in china, India and the United States. Once it establishes in these countries, it will have a potential for improving its business and realizing higher profits in the future. Here is a detailed analysis of Elecdyne.

STEEP Analysis

STEEP analysis is a tool that is commonly used in carrying out an evaluation of different external factors, which have a significant impact on an organization. STEEP is an acronym that stands for Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental, and Political factors affecting an organization. In as far as STEEP relates to Elecdyne, it is evident that before expanding into the three named countries the management has to consider and where necessary consult on the factors represented in the acronym. It is necessary to carry out a thorough analysis of STEEP because the management should have a good and wide understanding of detailed aspects regarding each of the represented factors (Richard, 2000). For instance, the social factors prevalent in China, India and the USA differ significantly, as these countries have people with different cultures that influence their response to the products that the company will introduce to them.

These cultures are significantly different from the homeland culture of the company, which is Japan. The technological aspects of each of these countries are different and as such, understanding the technological affairs prevalent within each of the targeted countries will enable the management to plan effectively for production, marketing and other related affairs of dealing with the project (Chin-Chun, 2006). Analyzing the economic status of each of the proposed countries is significant in that it will enable the company management to plan its activities in the new market zones effectively. This is because changes in economic progress are anticipated based on the global economic condition. Analyzing the external environment that affects the businesses in these three foreign countries significantly enables the company to select the suitable locations whereby it can position strategically and therefore not suffer adverse effects that may prevail in some of the locations where the operating environment might be challenging.

The political affairs of a country determine the policies developed regarding businesses in general and foreign investment into a country. Scanning the political environment in the three countries will enable the company management to understand the rules and regulations that they should abide by and therefore be able to operate smoothly while complying with the regulations. Elecdyne management should identify the differences prevalent in the different countries with regard to these factors and therefore develop an internationalization plan that is specific to each country (Partrick, 2011). This will enable the country to meet the internationalization expectation for each country.

Porter’s Diamond

Porter’s Diamond model for competitive advantage of nations gives a clear insight on why some industries are more competitive than others are in particular locations. Porter’s approach considers a number of considerably small industries in which case the competitiveness of one country has some relationship to performance depicted by other companies as well as some other significant factors that are tied together in the value added chain (Partrick, 2011, p. 54). This may also occur in customer-client relation or even in either local or regional contexts. Phenomena that are analyzed draw from factors incorporated into the diamond model. These factors include factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, firm strategy, structure and rivalry, government as well as chance.

Concerning Elecdyne, it is clear that in order for it to establish and thrive in the new market in the countries indicated, it has to consider the factors named here above. Considering factor conditions, it is necessary for the company management to consider its human resources, physical resources knowledge resources among others. Specialized resources as indicated are usually specific to an industry and consequently necessary for its competitiveness (Jane, 2007). These can be created in order to compensate for existing factor disadvantages. Analyzing the demand conditions of the countries in which the company is to internationalize will enable the company to carry out faster innovation in which case it will be bound to create more advanced products compared to those of competing firms in the foreign countries.

A thorough search is necessary to determine the availability of related and supporting industries in the targeted countries since such industries can provide the company with inputs that are duly essential for innovation and internationalization. Such industries are important for the company since they can provide cost-effective inputs, participating in upgrading process and hence stimulating innovation in other companies in the chain (Eren, 2011). Considering firm strategy, structure, and rivalry, it is clear that the manner of creation of companies, setting of goals and management is significant for success.

As such, once the company studies the environment in the foreign countries, it will be able to design a firm strategy, and structure that is consistent to the goals and the proposed management plan (Chin-Chun, 2006). The governments of the three countries have differing policies that determine the operations of foreign companies. As such, it is necessary to understand the policies of each of the country in order to ensure compliance to them. This will enable the company to operate smoothly. The possibility of occurrence of chance for the company once it establishes in the foreign companies is necessary for consideration. This will enable the company to make decisions whereby chance has the possibility of favoring it.

Relocation Options


China is an upcoming superpower that is increasingly viable economically. This is a clear indication that a company willing to internationalize into China has the potential to experience great business success. However, this will depend on the business strategies and approaches undertaken by the company in order to achieve its set goals and objectives. The country has plenty of related and support industries that would offer Elecdyne cost-effective inputs (Ole, 2011). The country also has different industries that encourage the upgrading process and hence stimulate companies within a particular chain to innovate. This presents an opportunity for Elecdyne to innovate so that it can provide high quality products that satisfy the needs of the customers appropriately. The country is technologically advanced and the company can use available technology to carry out its operational activities in the country.


The USA has been an economically viable country for a long time over the past. It also has large market base and as such, establishing in this country would enable Elecdyne to have plenty of customers for its business. However, this would depend on whether the company would produce and market its products effectively and competently. The country has related and support industries that can offer the company inputs for its products. It also has plenty of human resources that the company can hire in order to ensure that it has competent employees (Warren, 2001). The government has soft policies regarding foreign investment, which are friendly to foreign investors as long as they comply with the policies of the country regulating foreign business investments. The country is technologically advanced and therefore the company can utilize the most current technologies to carry out its production and marketing activities in this country.


Considering India, this rapidly growing economy presents the company with potential for success (Rukhmini, 2005). The country has a vast population that offers the company plenty of clients. However, in order for the company to succeed, it should consider the cultural aspects of the Indian population. As such, it should tailor the products so that they reflect the cultural affairs of the folks in this country. The country is improving economically and technologically and this implies that there is potential for foreign investors who are competent in production and management to establish and succeed in this country.

Internal Analysis


China is a country that has experienced tremendous economic success over the recent past. This has been because of good performance of the industries in different sectors. As a result, the country has become industrialized and emerged as a powerful economy in the globe. The strengths of the country lie in the availability of various category resources. For instance, it has plenty of physical resources that industries in this country can utilize in production. The country also has plenty of human resources (Chin-Chun, 2006). Most of the individuals in this country have the technical expertise and experience in production of different varieties of products. The country is highly populated and therefore, there is plenty of labor in the country. However, it has a weakness in that the common language is Chinese which may not favor the operations of foreign investors.


The USA has been an economic superpower over the past. However, owing to many economic and otherwise challenges, its economy has slightly declined. Nevertheless, it is on the rise and as such, this indicates that it has the potential to regain its economic competence. The country is industrialized and has plenty of industries that can enable the economy to regain its stability. It has strengths in availability of resources. For instance, is has plenty of human and physical resources. It is also strategically located for business activities across the globe. The country is technologically advanced and this presents Elecdyne with the opportunity to utilize the available technologies in its business activities (Partrick, 2011). However, it has weakness in foreign policy since owing to the possible current security threats; it has tightened its foreign policies. The country has plenty of experts able to provide labor for establishing investments. The country is currently financially unstable. However based on the plans in place, it will stabilize soon. This is promising for investors willing to establish in the country.


India is a growing economy with a vast population. It is encouraging adoption of new and current technologies. Its strengths lie in the plenty of natural resources as well as a vast population that offers plenty of market for products in the country. It also has good foreign policies, which encourage foreign investment with the aim to expanding and growing the economy. The country has limited financial ability. However, at the rate at which it is growing, it is evident that it will have a storing financial base (Rukhmini, 2005). With its current population, the country has plenty of labor to utilize in industries. The weakness of the country lies in the ability of majority population to offer professional services and others to purchase products that may have high price tags due to poverty in some geographical areas of the country.

PEST Analysis


The Chinese government has introduced leniency with regard to foreign investment. Due to globalization, which is rapidly taking place, the political leaders of the country have implemented policies, which offer opportunities to foreign investors in the country. This opens the ground for companies like Elecdyne to establish in this country. The country is currently experiencing rapid economic growth and the economy is stable. This may positively influence foreign investors in the country (Richard, 2000). The social factors prevalent in the country entail the cultural affairs. The country has a unique culture based on the language spoken and other factors. The culture may be an obstacle to foreign investors who may find it difficult to conform. The country is experiencing tremendous technological development necessary for boosting operations of home and foreign investors. This has been enabled by R&D activity


The political climate of the USA encourages foreign investment. However, investors should agree to comply with the internals rules and regulations that govern operations of home and foreign investors accordingly. The economic growth of the country has slightly declined over the past, however, it is slowly picking up, and the economy will soon be stable if no adversities will be experienced globally. This is a motivation to foreign investors willing to invest in the country. The social factors prevalent in the country entail the population growth rate and career attitudes among others (Warren, 2001). Majority population have positive attitude towards careers and foreign investment in the country. The country has advanced technologically and as such, its level of technology is suitable to attract investors into the country.


The political realm in India highly upholds foreign investment. This is because the country focuses on growth and expansion of the economy. This is possible by encouraging domestic and foreign investment. The country is experiencing rapid economic growth owing to plenty of labor and economic resources. This is an incentive for foreign investors. The social affairs of the country revolve around the cultural aspects of the folks. There is high population growth rate in the country, which implies availability of market for products (Jane, 2007). The country is also implementing current technologies borrowed from super economies. This implies that it is gradually advancing technologically.

Weighted analysis

Factors/country China USA India









Political climate suitable for investment Political leaders have a fairly suitable climate for foreign investment due to recent reforms Political leaders encourage and offer incentives to domestic and foreign investors
High economic growth Economic growth declined slightly over the recent past Economic growth in progress and rapid
Social factors like language may be an obstacle Positive attitudes towards investment and an international language suitable for foreign investors Culture aspects gradually changing to accommodate global expectations
High technological advancements suitable for investment Advanced technology is an incentive for foreign investors Growing technology is suitable for business activities


Elecdyne Decision

Based on the information obtained about the three countries, it is advisable for the company to seek investment opportunities in these countries. In china, the company can establish joint ventures with the domestic companies that produce electronic products. This is suitable, as it will enable the company to establish good business relationships with other related and supporting businesses in the country. In the USA, the company can choose to merge with other existing companies in the country so that it can be established in the country without having to face stiff competition from the already existing companies that have already secured their market. In India, the company can make acquisitions as well as establish greenfield sites from which to set up as independent business. This is because the country is still developing and such a decision would positively yield for the company in future. These decisions are necessary in setting a ground on which the company can review its operations in future and make changes as appropriate in order to realize its goals (Richard, 2000). These decisions help reduce competitions which may have detrimental effects on the company in the foreign countries


To sum up, it is ideal for the company to internationalize in these countries. This is because there are prospects. However, the success of the company depends on the decisions that are made with regard to the action to take. For a start, it is necessary for the company to consider mergers and joint ventures where necessary. This is because these forms of business will enable the company to establish in the respective countries and make appropriate adjustments in future if need be, this also enables the company to buy time to understand the details of operation in the foreign countries and hence devise a competent plan in this regard. Still establishing independently in the appropriate country would be a significant move towards success.






Chin-Chun, H. (2006). Internationalization and Performance: The S-Curve Hypothesis and Product Diversity Effect. Multinational Business Review, 14(2), 5-53.

Eren, O. (2011). Porter’s Diamond Model and Opportunity Recognition: A Cognitive Perspective. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 17(2), 3-57.

Jane, K. (2007). Internationalization Brings Important Benefits as Well as Risks. International Educator, 16(6), 6-59.

Ole, B. (2011). China and the Global Environment: Learning from the Past, Anticipating the Future. The China Journal, 66, 3-46.

Partrick, S. e. (2011). Internationalization of New Ventures: Tests of Growth and Survival. Multinational Business Review, 19(4), 7-61.

Renata, K. e. (2012). The Internationalization of SMEs: An Integrative Approach. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 13(2), 4-44.

Richard, D. (2000). Global Business: Operating in the Green. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(5), 3-48.

Rukhmini, P. (2005). India’s Edge; Why the Nation’s Top Managers Fare Better Than Their Chinese Counterparts in Global Business Circles. Newsweek , 5-48.

Warren, F. R. (2001). The Nexus of Sustainability & Social Equity: Virginia’s Eastern Shore (USA) as a Local Example of Global Issues. International Journal of Economic Development, 3(2), 5-55.


organ transplant

  1. The success of an organ transplant depends on many factors. What unavoidable factor would diminish the chance of success of a lung transplant, but is not a factor at all in a heart transplant?

Answer: – The unavoidable factor is viral attack which may happen at any point of time from the air present within the lung which is being used for transplantation and if it happens it is very unlikely during the process of transplantation to save a person and this is not possible during heart transplantation since there remains no confined air with harmful bacteria’s.

  1. At a construction site, a hole caved in and buried a workman up to his shoulders in wet sand. The foreman told the trapped man that a crane would be there in 20 minutes to pull him out, but another worker said they couldn’t wait, and had to dig NOW. He was right. Why is this life-threatening emergency?

Answer:-This is an instance of life-threatening emergency since the person is already trapped within the hole and if it caves in further and he goes completely within the hole then he will no longer be able to breathe and will die in a matter of few minutes and in this scenario, the timeframe of 20 minutes is too much as the situation can get worsened at any point of time so as per the suggestion of the worker, they should have continued digging as that would clear up some amount of space so even if the hole caves in further and the person goes further inside he at least can be viewed properly and at least would not die too soon as there are expected to be some amount of open space for air to peep in-which may be adequate for the drowning person.




Asian cities have tended to grow more quickly than Western cities and it is estimated that by 2015 more than half of the world’s megacities will be in Asia. So what makes their growth so phenomenal? The accelerated rate may be attributed to population dynamics, economic markets and or/socio-political conditions such as poor planning and disregard for environmental hazards like floods, huge dams and denudation of forests. Many primate cities in Asia have grown to become megacities, and some more are rapidly increasing in size to assume such a status by the end of the century. This is a remarkable phenomenon fraught with various implications, favorable or unfavorable. In 1960 there were only two megacities in the region, which were, Tokyo and Shanghai. In 1970 Beijing was added, and Asia had three of 10 megacities in the world, or two of five in the developing world. By 1980 Bombay, Calcutta, Osaka, and Seoul also assumed similar status, and Asia had seven of 15 world megacities. In 1990, with Tianjin, Jakarta, Delhi, and Manila becoming megacities, developing Asia has contained nine of 14 mega-cities in the less developed regions. In my opinion, I believe that the population dynamics are the most influential to urban growth.

Population Dynamics vis-à-vis Urban Growth
Over two centuries, from 18th century to 20th century, the level of mortality has changed dramatically in Asian countries. The demographers use life expectancy of birth, which is the average number of years that newborn baby can be expected to live, as a means to measure the mortality level. Generally, the life expectancy of birth has increased rapidly since the beginning of 18th century. In some countries of Asia like Japan and Ceylon, the death rate has tended to fall since the 1920’s. But in most countries it began to show a rapid tendency toward decline only after World War II. According to recent data, the death rate is 12.1 per 1,000 for India, 9.1 for Ceylon, 7.1-7.3 for Hongkong, Taiwan and the Philippines, and 6.5 per 1,000 for Singapore. If these death rates were expressed in terms of standardized death rates, the latter would be higher than the former in Asia where the proportion of juvenile population is higher. But, even using standardized death rates, we can conclude that there has been a marked mortality decline in Asian countries. Particularly remarkable is the decline in infant mortality. The former infant mortality of 200 per 1,000 for India has now been reduced to half. In almost all countries it is far below the 100 per 1,000 levels. Burma, however, with an infant mortality rate of slightly more than 100 per 1,000 is an exception. Also, while observing mortality rate, birth rate is considered an indicator to understand why Asian population growth is phenomenal. The birth rate in boys is 9.17 births per 1,000 populations and for girls 8.39 births per 1,000 populations giving it a total of 17.56 births per 1,000 populations, being much higher than the United States which is at 12.7 per 1,000 populations.
Other Factors

The Economic Factor and Its Effect:
Despite considering the fact that there are many other factors that could have been chosen as the reason for the phenomenal growth of Asian  cities, I truly do  not believe any of them really will stand  up  to the above argument . The first that I would like to examine is economic market. Although the economic market is doing extremely well I do not believe it determines why Asia is growing so quickly. “The three largest Asian countries, China, Indonesia and India, rank  89th, 122nd and 133rd respectively in the World Bank’s ‘ease of doing business rankings.’ In order to sustain the growth, physical infrastructure will need to be prioritized: the Asian Development Bank estimates that $8 trillion is needed for infrastructure development. Demographics will pose a challenge. In East Asia there is the rapid aging of the population, while in Central and South Asia education and employment will need to be found to stave off possible socio-political unrest among the booming youth population” (Lehmann 2010). The following artic lee shows that the correlation between economics and population is negative; this being one of the main reasons why I believe economics does not have the greatest effect on Asian growth, but is still an important factor

Socio-political conditions


The most significant features that greatly impact the Asian countries today are the socio-political conditions in the economies. However, there have also been many countries particularly in Asia that have been politically controlled by the military. The period after the war was in which many Asian countries such as Indonesia, Burma, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Sri Lanka and many other have been under the control of the military. Moreover, military taking over the politics in the developing Asian countries is more widespread. However, the way in which the military rules a country varies from the way it is controlled under a democratic government. Since the military is strict, they implement rules and regulations. Moreover, when a country is under the control of military, its inflation is controlled, and law and order is maintained. This aspect is more common in the developing countries in Asia. These include Pakistan and Afghanistan where the country has been more prosperous under military rule rather than when it is under a democratic government.

Foreign Aid and investment
There are many Asian countries receiving foreign aid and foreign direct investment. The compulsions of lack of capital and indigenous financial resources have exercised pressure on thee countries to seek foreign aid and investment. The economically emerging India is a classic example developing its urban as well as rural infrastructure on account of foreign aid.

Migration from rural to Urban cities:

One of the reasons for the growth of the cities in Asia is that its rural population has been migrating to cities in search of employment, education and better amenities, which in turn is putting pressure on the governments to come to the aid of these newly migrated population
Though there are umpteen reasons why the population is growing so rapidly, there are a countless number of events and tragedies holding the population back. There is a lot of deforestation and desertification going on in Asia. They are exploiting the land for a profit, for example, in Burma they exploit timber, oil and mineral resources to support their government. There are also poor farmers employing improper irrigation and fertilization practices causing resulting in damage and toxicity of the soil. Another huge issue in Asia is water, the misuse of which costs a ridiculous amount to treat the water polluted by untreated sewage, salt water, and industrial discharges.

In closing, Asian cities have tended to grow more quickly than Western cities. Although, there are many attributes such as population dynamics, economic markets and or/socio-political conditions, poor planning and disregard for environmental hazards like floods, deforestation and indiscrimate construction of hydro-dams etc. In my opinion, population growth   is the main reason for rapid development of cities. I believe that the population dynamics are the most influential in urban growth. Despite the   consideration given to such aspects as great economy and socio political conditions, I still believe that population dynamics is the greatest reason for massive growth of Asian cities



Urban World and Global city:David Clark,psychology press,2003

Third World Cities in Global Perspective: The Political Economy of Uneven Urbanization
David A. Smith. Westview Press, 1996

Cities and Urban Cultures
Deborah Stevenson. Open University Press, 2003

Urban Structure: The Social and Spatial Character of Cities
Ralph Thomlinson. Random House, 1969

Compact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries
Mike Jenks; Rod Burgess. Spon Press, 2000



Critique On Oochigeaskw- The Rough-Faced Girl



Right from the onset, it beats logic to appreciate that various communities or rather tribes exercise a myriad of values and beliefs. From these beliefs, various social relations stem. For instance, the beauty is highly upheld and praised in many societies, and especially in the women, such that those who do find themselves beautiful find a hard time, neglect and mockery in the society. In order to counter this, various tales have been used to bring respect in the society to all and sundry. The short transcript of Oochigeaskw-The Rough-Faced Girl is one such tale which seeks to bring an end to such strange behavior in the society. In this regard, this paper seeks to offer an informed critique on the Oochigeaskw’s “Rough faced girl, and highlight on core areas family squabbles, social neglect and the subject of hope for the hopeless. This is as follows:

Brief overview

A keen reader would definitely be fancied by the way the Transcript of Oochigeaskw narrates right from start to its spectacular ending. Just as a brief overview, the transcript entails a Hindu society from which traces of disregard and disrespect is eminent, especially to those individuals who stand exhibit abnormal natural states, such as ugly and the like. Straight to the point, The story centers on three sisters of which the youngest of all, Oochigeaskw happens to have a rough face and who seems to have fateful encounters in life. In this society, the lives girls hangs on the balance whenever it comes to wining spouses; and for that matter, meaningful spouses. There so happens to exist a famous warrior who happens to be ‘invisible’ and who  is eyed by every beautiful girl. However, to the surprise of many, Oochigeaskw, who had an ugly face and always wore ragged clothing ended up as the choice of the “invisible one”.


At this juncture, it’s of no doubt to appreciate that this community had some form of discrimination against those who appeared to even have natural weaknesses and more so the naturally disadvantaged. It so happens that despite of her situation of humiliation, Oochigeaskw manages to see the ‘invisible one’, which was not the case even with the beautiful girls, and even her sisters. This for sure sends a message to the society that the weak can be strong in critical matters. Going deeper into the analysis, the following is elicited to the readers’ mind:

Family squabbles

From the reading, there clearly exist cases of family squabbles and competitions among sisters. The older sisters to Oochigeaskw are not happy with her the way she is and they compete for the opportunity. This is egocentrism and it is soundly portrayed with the eldest sister. Hatred, even goes to the extent that the sisters both physically and verbally abuse her in attempts to discourage and humiliate her. This is not good.

The value of humility and inner beauty

Despite what she goes through, Oochigeaskw never finds her heart broken, neither does she reciprocate evil for evil, she stays calm and fortune opens doors of vision and she manages to see the “invisible one” when no one else, except his sister does it all the time. Out of humility, calmness and self-respect, Oochigeaskw is chosen by the “invisible one” and they fall in love leading to marriage. It is mentioned that the sister to the invisible one once washed Oochigeaskw face and she turned to a very beautiful lady. This, to me, places emphasis on the value of inner beauty and her long fate changed to joy.


From the above discussion, it is quite clear that the transcript tries to pass a critical message to the society. It warns those who hold little respect to others due to natural misfortunes. Actually, in my opinion, Hope, prosperity and success are equal opportune fortunes which are at the disposal of each and every individual and at no point should anyone ever feel disadvantaged. This is what happened to Oochigeaskw. Inner beauty is another attribute upheld and surpasses the outer appearance by far. Oochigeaskw saw the inner beauty in her disregarded self which enabled her to see the beauty in the “invisible one”, the warrior. Pride, ignorance and hatred are shunned.

 For more homework help online:








Behrens, L., & Rosen, L. J. (2013). Writing and reading across the curriculum. Boston: Pearson.

organic sunscreens

I want you to get a sunscreen with at least 4 different organic sunscreens.
Find out the chemical structure, the IUPAC name, the ultraviolet absorption spectrum, the infra-red spectrum, and find out how each of them is synthesized, then outline the mechanisms of the reactions used to make them.




Sunscreen which is sometimes called sunblock, suntan lotion, sunburn cream is a lotion, gel that absorbs or reflects some of thesun’s harmful (UV) radiation on the skin exposed to sunrays. Depending on the mode of action sunscreens can be classified into physical sunscreens (i.e., those that reflect the sunlight) or chemical sunscreens (i.e., those that absorb the UV light).Sunscreen combines organic and inorganic chemicals to filter the light from the sun so that less of it reaches the deeper layers of your skin. Like a screen door, some light penetrates, but not as much as if the door wasn’t present.

Function of sunscreen:

The portion of the sunlight that is filtered or blocked is ultraviolet radiation. There are three regions of ultraviolet light.

UV-A penetrates deeply into the skin and can lead to cancer and premature skin aging.

UV-B is involved in tanning and burning of your skin.

UV-C is completely absorbed by the earth’s atmosphere.



The organic molecules in sunscreen absorb the ultraviolet radiation and release it as heat.

PABA (para-aminobenzoicacid) absorbs UVB

Cinnamates absorb UVB

Benzophenones absorb UVA

Anthranilates absorb UVA and UVB

Ecamsules absorb UVA

Since both UVA and UVB rays are harmful, you need protection from both types of the suns rays.

The best sunscreens are classified as Broad Spectrum sunscreen.


– These protect against both UVA and UVB rays

– Are water-resistant (NOT waterproof)

– Have an SPF-15 or higher


Some common sunscreen ingredients:


  • Avabenzone( Parsol 1789) are highly effective and appear less irritating.


  • Benzophenones (Oxybenzone, Dioxybenzone ) have been used in sunscreens for 50 years and have been known to cause irritations.


  • Cinnamates (cinoxate, ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, octylmethoxycinnamate) These are a frequently used UVB absorber. They are often found in liquid foundations that have an SPF factor.


  • Ecamsule( Mexoryl SX) an organic compound added to sunscreens to filter out UVA rays.
  • PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) was mostly used in the early 1970s and was the first true sunscreen to be widely available. It is not commonly used now because it often caused allergic reactions.
  • Salicylates are weak UVB absorbers and they are generally used in combination with other UV filters.
  • Titanium Dioxide: titanium dioxide is found in almost every sunscreen. It is a blocker of UV light and has strong absorbing capabilities.
  • Zinc Oxide absorbs both UVA and UVB rays and can be used in ointments, creams, and lotions to protect against sunburn and other skin damage. It is the broadest spectrum UVA and UVB absorber that is approved for use in sunscreen by the FDA.



Side effect of sunscreen:


The environment may also be affected by the use of sunscreens. TiO2can have

ecotoxic effects on algae and daphnids. Octocrylene and MBC have been found

in fish from Swiss rivers. Skin problems ,Subjectiveirritationis among the most frequent complaints. The symptoms can be stinging, burning and/or itching without any visible skin signs .Contact and photocontact dermatitis.

Contact and photocontact dermatitis can be caused by sunscreens. These can be

both irritant and allergic reactions.Some generate DNA-damaging chemicals called “free radicals.” These may lead to skin cancers.



Important  Chemical (organic) sunscreen  include: Octylcrylene, ayobenzone, octinoxate,octisalate, oxybenzone, homosalate, Mexoryl



Avobenzoneis an oil soluble ingredient used in organic sunscreen products to absorb the spectrum of UVA rays. It is a di-benzolynmethanederivative. It is a mixture of the enol and keto forms, favoring the chelated enol. Its ability to absorb ultraviolet light over a wider range of wavelengths than many organic sunscreen agents has led to its use in many commercial preparations marketed as “broad spectrum” sunscreens. Avobenzone has an absorption maximum of 357 nm.




Iupact Name:


Others name:

butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane; 4-tert-butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoylmethane


Molecular formula: C20H22O3

Molar mass: 310.3 g/mol

Oxybenzoneis an organic compound used in sunscreen. It forms colorless crystals that are readily soluble in most organic solvents.

It is used as an ingredient in sunscreen and other cosmetics because it absorbs UVB and short-wave UVA (ultraviolet) rays.[4]Oxybenzone was one of the first compounds incorporated into sunscreen formulations to offer enhanced UVA protection because its absorption spectrum extends to less than 350 nm.[5]Oxybenzone’s ability to absorb UV rays is due to a variety of molecular interactions. In this compound, both of the phenyl rings can interact with the C=O group through inductive effects and mesomeric effects.

IUPAC name:


Others name: Oxybenzone


Molar mass: 228.2 g/mol

Molecular Formula: C14H12O3

Density: 1.20 g cm−3


Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. Generally it is sourced from ilmenite, rutile and anatase. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food colouring


Iupac name: Titanium dioxide
Titanium(IV) oxide


Others name: Titania, Rutile





ADDitional(organis substance in sunscreen)


here are two main types of compounds found in sunscreens:
(1) Synthetic organic compounds that have the ability to absorb UV radiation by entering an excited state .Examples include avobenzone, octyl methoxycinnamate, and octocrylene.


Octyl methoxycinnamate

(2) Physical blockers which form an opaque shield on the skin, of which the most common are the inorganic mineral oxides, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide.



Cinnamates are chemically related to cinnamon oil and other cinnamon-related compounds that are used widely as flavourings and fragrances in many toiletries and cosmetics. The added benefit of cinnamates is that it is a potent UVB absorber and therefore used in sunscreen agents and colour cosmetics with sun protection factor qualities.

Octyl methoxycinnamate is the most widely used UVB blocking agent used in the skincare industry. When exposed to sunlight, octyl methoxycinnamate is converted into a less UV absorbent form which means that its effectiveness is reduced over time. However, this breakdown can be partly prevented by the addition of certain other photostabilisers, particularly bemotrizinol.  The combination with other chemicals makes a more water resistant and stable product.

Octocrylene (2-ethylhexyl-2-ciano-3, 3-diphenyl acrylate), a relatively new cinnamate that has both UVB and some UVA absorbing properties is photostable and thought to be non-allergenic and non-irritating. However, its widespread use in sunscreen and cosmetic products has led to an increase in octocrylene sensititsation, so much so that it is now a prime photoallergen of chemical absorbing sunscreens.

What are the reactions to cinnamate allergy?

Because cinnamates are chemically related to to balsam  of Peru tolu balsam, coca leaves, cinnamic aldehyde, and cinnamic oil, people with sensitivities to these compounds may also be sensitive to cinnamates. Sensitivity produces classic allergic contact dermatitis as well as photocontact dermatitis. In addition to allergic type reactions, concerns have been raised about the relative ease of which octyl methoxycinnamate is absorbed into the skin and may promote generation of potentially harmful free radicals. What this means in terms of the use of cinnamates in skin care products long term is unknown, hence further research is warranted.





Range of UV spectrum covered: UVB, short UVA (UVA-2) but not long UVA

Wavelengths covered: 290-360 nm

Highly stable, do not degrade in sunlight. Protect other UV blocking agents from UV-induced degradation.

Benzophenone-3 (Oxybenzone) and Benzophenone-4 (Sulisobenzone) are chemical UV absorbers solid (powder) at normal temperature. Both cover UVB and short UVA (UVA-2) range but are relatively weak sunscreens, inadequate when used alone. They are both very stable and protect and augment other UV absorbers. Benzophenones are absorbed into the skin and have been shown in some studies to promote generation of potentially harmful free radicals. The health implications are unclear but some experts have raised concerns that warrant further research.

Benzophenones are weak chemical UV absorbers. Benzophenone-3 (Oxybenzone) and Benzophenone-4 (Sulisobenzone) are the benzophenones most commonly used is sunscreen products. They are chemicals solid (powder) at normal temperature. Oxybenzone is water insoluble. Sulisobenzone is water insoluble in its acid form, but can be dissolved in water if neutralized. Both cover UVB and short UVA (UVA-2) range but are relatively weak sunscreens, inadequate when used alone. They are both very stable and protect and augment other UV absorbers.

Benzophenones are relatively easily absorbed into the skin and have been shown in some studies to promote generation of potentially harmful free radicals. Implications of these finding for typical use are unknown but some experts have raised concerns that warrant further research.